Diabetes

A metabolic disease characterised by hyperglycaemia (elevated blood sugar levels). It is a chronic disease, still incurable. It results from a deficit in the production or action of insulin secreted by pancreatic beta-cells. Depending on the cause and the course of the disease, many types of diabetes mellitus can be distinguished. The most common are Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Untreated diabetes can lead to serious complications because excessive levels of glucose can damage nerves, blood vessels and organs. The eyes, kidneys and heart are particularly at risk.

The main symptoms of diabetes are:

a strong feeling of
thirst
tiredness
sudden weight
loss
frequent
urination
blurred
vision

Diabetes is the first non-communicable disease recognized in 2011 by the United Nations as an epidemic of the 21st century.

In Poland 3 million people suffer from diabetes, of whom 1/3 is not aware of it yet. Diabetes is a deceptive disease – at first it doesn’t show its symptoms. Abnormal sugar levels don’t hurt but they lead to serious complications. That is why it is very important to undergo preventive screenings to help us diagnose diabetes. It is important to remember that nowadays new treatments and technologies allow people with diabetes to live a comfortable and normal life. However, self-control and the use of prescribed therapy are required.

Diabetes type 1

(lat. diabetes mellitus), also called insulin-dependent diabetes, is caused by a chronic autoimmune process leading to a slow destruction of the β-cells of the pancreatic islets that produce insulin and subsequent loss of insulin secretion. Fully symptomatic Type 1 diabetes, if not treated with insulin injections, is a fatal disease. When treated properly, it does not affect the life expectancy of the patient. This type of diabetes most often occurs in children and adolescents. Insulin therapy is carried out with the help of insulin pumps or pens.

Type 2 diabetes

is the most common form of diabetes (90% of cases) and is characterized by hyperglycemia (too high blood glucose levels), insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. This type most often affects older people, however, in recent years people have started to get sick younger and younger due to an unhealthy lifestyle. It is most often the result of obesity (mainly abdominal) and a complication of some metabolic diseases. When treating type 2 diabetes, proper diet, physical activity and reducing excess weight play a very important role

Blood glucose level

After meal (NOT fasting)
(<8 hours after last meal, regardless of meal size):

70-120 mg/dl – correct result

121 – 199 mg/dl – abnormal result, it is advisable for the person to contact their primary care physician

≥ 200 mg/dl and symptoms of hyperglycemia (e.g. increased thirst, polyuria, weakness,
weight loss) – suspected diabetes- the patient should urgently contact a physician

Fasting blood glucose level
(i.e. 8-14 hours after the last meal):

70 – 99 mg/dl – correct result
≥ 100 mg/dl without symptoms – incorrect result- contact with a
primary care physician is advisable

≥ 126 mg/dl and symptoms of hyperglycemia (e.g. increased thirst, polyuria, weakness – diabetes suspected; primary care physician!

Diabetes treatment

The treatment of diabetes is complex. It is not enough just to take medication. The basic and most important factor is taking insulin injections for type 1 diabetes, or medication for type 2 diabetes.

In addition, it is necessary to apply:

– healthy nutrition
– physical activity
– diabetes education (correct insulin administration, meal calculation, knowledge of factors affecting sugar levels)
– self-management

Self-management can be interpreted as actions that lead to the achievement of therapeutic goals in the treatment of diabetes. It consists of regular measurement of blood glucose level, controlling blood pressure, body weight, and following the rules of healthy lifestyle. In this way, we can improve our therapy and estimate the influence of our food intake, physical activity and other factors on blood glucose levels. Remember that diabetes is a disease in which active participation in its treatment is a fundamental prerequisite for good results.

When should a person with diabetes control blood glucose levels?

– on an empty stomach
– before each meal
– 1.5-2 hours after a meal
– before, during and after physical exercise
– before going to bed
– between 2 and 3 at night

Hypoglycemia

Czym jest hipoglikemia? Hypoglycemia is a medical condition in which blood sugar levels fall below the normal range of >70. The type and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms can vary every time even for the same diabetic. Severe hypoglycemia can cause death called hypoglycemic shock.

What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia?

– increased thirst
– frequent urination
– weight loss
– weakness and excessive sleepiness
– visual disturbances
– purulent lesions on the skin
– recurrent genitourinary infections
– wounds that are difficult to heal

Causes of hyperglycemia:

– stressful situations
– infections
– insufficient physical activity
– wrong meal calculation
– lack of self-management
– setting an incorrect insulin dose
– abandoning treatment
– too little sleep which increases insulin resistance

What should you do if you see a patient with hypoglycemia?

– If a person is conscious and has mild symptoms of hypoglycemia, check blood glucose and give about 10-20 grams of glucose, 2 sugar cubes, or ½ cup of fruit juice. Wait 15 minutes, if no improvement is seen after this time repeat the treatment.
– If there is a marked deterioration of the condition or the person loses consciousness, administer a so-called Glucagon (every diabetic should have it with them) and call for help immediately. Do not give anything by mouth if the patient is unconscious.

WHY IS PREVENTION SO IMPORTANT WHEN IT COMES TO DIABETES?

Early diagnosed and properly treated diabetes does not lead to serious complications or death. Maintaining normal glucose levels in the body allows diabetics to live a long and happy life without complications. That is why you should take advantage of the offered preventive tests as often as possible.

REMEMBER, TOGETHER WE CAN DO MORE!

Diabetes type 1 (lat. diabetes mellitus), also called insulin-dependent diabetes, is caused by a chronic autoimmune process leading to a slow destruction of the β-cells of the pancreatic islets that produce insulin and subsequent loss of insulin secretion. Fully symptomatic Type 1 diabetes, if not treated with insulin injections, is a fatal disease. When treated properly, it does not affect the life expectancy of the patient. This type of diabetes most often occurs in children and adolescents. Insulin therapy is carried out with the help of insulin pumps or pens.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes (90% of cases) and is characterized by hyperglycemia (too high blood glucose levels), insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. This type most often affects older people, however, in recent years people have started to get sick younger and younger due to an unhealthy lifestyle. It is most often the result of obesity (mainly abdominal) and a complication of some metabolic diseases. When treating type 2 diabetes, proper diet, physical activity and reducing excess weight play a very important role

Blood glucose level

After meal (NOT fasting)
(<8 hours after last meal, regardless of meal size):

70-120 mg/dl – correct result

121 - 199 mg/dl - abnormal result, it is advisable for the person to contact their primary care physician

≥ 200 mg/dl and symptoms of hyperglycemia (e.g. increased thirst, polyuria, weakness, weight loss) - suspected diabetes- the patient should urgently contact a physician

Diabetes treatment

The treatment of diabetes is complex. It is not enough just to take medication. The basic and most important factor is taking insulin injections for type 1 diabetes, or medication for type 2 diabetes.

In addition, it is necessary to apply:

- healthy nutrition
- physical activity
- diabetes education (correct insulin administration, meal calculation, knowledge of factors affecting sugar levels)
- self-management

.

Fasting blood glucose level
(i.e. 8-14 hours after the last meal):

70 – 99 mg/dl - correct result

≥ 100 mg/dl without symptoms - incorrect result- contact with a primary care physician is advisable

≥ 126 mg/dl and symptoms of hyperglycemia (e.g. increased thirst, polyuria, weakness - diabetes suspected; primary care physician!

What is self-management?

Self-management can be interpreted as actions that lead to the achievement of therapeutic goals in the treatment of diabetes. It consists of regular measurement of blood glucose level, controlling blood pressure, body weight, and following the rules of healthy lifestyle. In this way, we can improve our therapy and estimate the influence of our food intake, physical activity and other factors on blood glucose levels. Remember that diabetes is a disease in which active participation in its treatment is a fundamental prerequisite for good results.

When should a person with diabetes control blood glucose levels?

- on an empty stomach
- before each meal
- 1.5-2 hours after a meal
- before, during and after physical exercise
- before going to bed
- between 2 and 3 at night

Hypoglycemia What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a medical condition in which blood sugar levels fall below the normal range of >70. The type and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms can vary every time even for the same diabetic. Severe hypoglycemia can cause death called hypoglycemic shock.

Causes of hyperglycemia:

– stressful situations
– infections
– insufficient physical activity
– wrong meal calculation
– lack of self-management
– setting an incorrect insulin dose
– abandoning treatment
– too little sleep which increases insulin resistance
– excessive dose of insulin or anti-diabetic medication
– dietary mistakes (wrong diet, skipping meals, miscalculation of calories)
– intensive or prolonged physical exercise
– alcohol consumption

What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia?

– increased thirst
– frequent urination
– weight loss
– weakness and excessive sleepiness
– visual disturbances
– purulent lesions on the skin
– recurrent genitourinary infections
– wounds that are difficult to heal

What should you do if you see a patient with hypoglycemia?

– If a person is conscious and has mild symptoms of hypoglycemia, check blood glucose and give about 10-20 grams of glucose, 2 sugar cubes, or ½ cup of fruit juice. Wait 15 minutes, if no improvement is seen after this time repeat the treatment.
– If there is a marked deterioration of the condition or the person loses consciousness, administer a so-called Glucagon (every diabetic should have it with them) and call for help immediately. Do not give anything by mouth if the patient is unconscious.

Healthy lifestyle recommendations (not only for diabetics)

Eat your meals regularly.
In this way, you provide your body with constant amounts of energy

Try to prepare food by boiling, steaming, braising with a little fat or baking without fat in a sleeve. Avoid fried and breaded dishes.

Drink up to 2 l of fluids daily (unsweetened tea, still mineral water)

Do not eat in a hurry, allow at least 15 minutes for a meal, chew each bite carefully - up to 30 times.

Choose healthy food, avoid soft drinks, tinned foods, white bread, pasta, sweets and fatty meats.

Cut down on alcohol.

Limit salt and sugar intake. It is best to avoid sugary drinks and foods.

Take care of your sleep. It is a very important element of regeneration of the body, and its disruption affects, among others, glucose metabolism in the body.

Be active! Choose the form of exercise that suits you best and exercise!

WHY IS PREVENTION SO IMPORTANT WHEN IT COMES TO DIABETES?

Early diagnosed and properly treated diabetes does not lead to serious complications or death. Maintaining normal glucose levels in the body allows diabetics to live a long and happy life without complications. That is why you should take advantage of the offered preventive tests as often as possible.

REMEMBER, TOGETHER WE CAN DO MORE!